"閱讀與寫作技巧對於學術發展相當重要。目前在大學課堂中，最普遍的寫作任務，便是需要學生 對於閱讀文本給予回應，即摘要寫作，以及綜合各個不同資料來源之整合寫作。雖然結合閱讀與寫作 任務在課程中越顯重要，目前提供給學生教學及練習閱讀與寫作技巧的機會卻相對稀少。本兩年期計 劃，主要是要讓英語學習者，能夠嘗試真實的閱讀寫作任務，輔以翻轉教學之設計，以及跨文化溝通 合作，以提升學生摘要及綜合寫作的能力，創造自主學習機會，以及增進文化敏感度。計劃將了解明 確而詳盡的讀寫教學，對英語學習者摘要及綜合寫作之成效，以及學生對整個讀寫任務、翻轉教學、 及跨文化合作的看法。 本兩年期計劃，第一年主要著重於摘要寫作，第二年則為綜合寫作。由於閱讀寫作技巧需要長期 時間培養，而文化敏感度也必須要長期觀察，所以本次計劃期程規畫為兩年。計劃初期會先創建一個 閱讀寫作平台，集結所有研究者事先預錄好的教學材料，做為翻轉教學之準備;並設有電腦溝通媒介 之元件，可以做為跨文化溝通的橋樑;且設計與電影相關主題之閱讀與寫作教學單元，幫助學生完成 閱讀與寫作任務。六十位修習大一英文，中級程度非英語主修之學生將參加第一年期計劃。學生完成 五階段摘要寫作任務，包含建立背景、典範學習、集合創作、獨立創作，及比較等過程。學生首先會 在課前預覽教學材料，閱讀材料選以字數及可讀性合宜，與電影主題敘述相關之網路文章，導引學生 了解故事發生之背景，角色與事件的互動，與最後結局及角色之回應等重點，協助學生完成閱讀寫作 任務，並與跨文化同伴進行同儕互評。學生們在閱讀寫作期程中，需建立自我檔案，期末需完成事後 問卷，前後的文化敏感度問卷，及參加訪談。學生的寫作表現，即評比最初及最終的摘要寫作作品， 評論標準包括寫作流暢度，內容，及結構。學生對於本次計劃加入翻轉教室元素，跨文化合作，以及 整個課程的設計的看法，也會透過事後問卷，訪談，及歷程檔案做質量並重的分析。 第二年的綜合寫作計劃，將延續第一年的摘要寫作，三十位選自於第一年的計劃，有較高語言程 度及動機的學生將參與第二年的計劃。與計畫搭配執行的課程為進階英文課程中的閱讀與寫作課。與 第一年相同，第二年的整合寫作計劃，也是使用電影為閱讀討論材料，但學生必須搜集多元資料，並 透過不同文體之教學，如包括描述、過程、比較、分類、例舉、定義、以及論說等，進行綜合寫作。 老師將教導學生如何運用搜尋引擎，尋找適合的線上多樣來源內容之資料，整合內容，最後將它變成 一個完整的寫作成品。如第一年計劃，每一個綜合寫作課程，都會藉由透過先預覽教學內容，讓學生 實踐翻轉學習，也會讓學生跨文化合作，並同儕互評。學生之整合寫作成效，將以閱讀寫作，任務完 成度，組織及結構，語言使用等為評量標準。量化資料如事後問卷，質化資料如檔案歷程及事後訪談， 將會運用在分析學生對於整個計劃之看法。 期盼本計劃創新之設計，結合閱讀寫作課程，翻轉教學，及跨文化合作，能夠幫助學生寫作技巧 之增進，成為自主學習及跨文化溝通者。在數位時代，學生能夠運用閱讀寫作來溝通自己意見，將有 助提升其跨國競爭力。"
"Reading/Writing skills are essential to academic development. The most common types of writing tasks in university settings require students’ responses to reading input from source texts, such as summarizing and synthesizing information across textual resources. Despite the importance of integrating reading-writing tasks into curriculum, relatively few opportunities have been given to L2 learners to learn and practice reading/writing skills. This project aims to engage L2 learners’ in authentic reading/writing tasks, supplemented by flip teaching and intercultural collaboration, for enhanced summary/synthesis writing performances, learner autonomy, and intercultural sensitivity. It seeks to uncover the effects of explicit instruction on summary/synthesis writing, learners’ perceptions of integrating flip teaching and intercultural collaboration into this reading/writing project, and their cultural sensitivity. This reading/writing project will last two years, with the first-year on summary writing and the second-year on synthesis writing. As reading/writing skills need to be cultivated over a long period of time and changes for cultural sensitivity can only be perceived in a longer time span, the two-year framework of this project is deemed appropriate. A Reading/Writing Forum will first be constructed with pre-recorded instructional materials to realize flip teaching, Web 2.0 communication capabilities to realize intercultural collaboration, and reading-writing modules to provide strategic instruction using film-related topics as major materials. Sixty intermediate non-English majors from a freshman English course at a national university in Taiwan will participate in this study. They will go through a five-step approach to summary writing; that is, setting the context, modeling, joint construction, independent construction, and comparing. The reading materials will be narrative movie texts based on which the researcher will design tutorials for students to complete reading/summary writing activities focusing on setting, initial event, internal response, attempt, consequence, and reaction. Students will first preview instructional video prior to classroom meetings, completing the reading/writing models, and receiving peer comments from their classmates and their global peers. Students’ summary writing performance will be evaluated by comparing their initial summary with their final summary based on the rubrics of fluency, content, and form. Their perceptions of this project in the areas of flip teaching, intercultural collaboration, and overall feedback on the design of the reading/writing tasks will be determined by results from the post-task survey, interviews, and online portfolios. A pre-post cultural sensitivity survey will be used to examine changes in their cultural sensitivity. As a follow-up to first year’s summary writing project, thirty sophomore students from a reading and writing course within the Advanced English curriculum at the researcher’s university will participate in the second-year project. Students are selected from the first-year study because they have overall better language skills and higher motivation to learn about the writing skills and exchanging ideas with intercultural partners. The second-year synthesis writing project will also use films as a prompt to instruct various genres, including description, process, comparison and contrast, classification, example, definition, and argumentation. Students are instructed to use proper search engines, search for multiple source texts online, synthesize information, and finally integrate it into a coherent whole. Each synthesis writing module will require students to practice flip teaching of previewing instructional videos as well as intercultural collaboration to exchange ideas with global peers to receive peer comments. The final reading-writing synthesis project invites students to work in groups and collaborate with intercultural partners to incorporate all the genre writing strategies that they have learned, synthesize resources they find online, and report their findings in written and oral presentation forms. Students’ synthesis writing performance will be evaluated based on the criteria of reading for writing, task fulfillment, organization and structure, and language control. Students’ cultural sensitivity will be evaluated by t-test analyses on pre-/post cultural sensitivity scale and by qualitative analyses on their journals and portfolios. Quantitative data from a post-task survey and qualitative data from portfolios and interviews will be gathered to understand students’ perceptions of this project. It is hoped that this project’s innovative design of integrating explicit instruction on reading/writing, flip teaching, and intercultural collaboration can help student improve their summary/synthesis writing strategies and become active agent of learners and intercultural collaborators. The skills of reading/writing to communicate ideas will enhance their global competitiveness in a digital age."
English as a Lingua Franca