"表現在東海與南海的黑潮、亞洲季風（AM）、南海穿越流（SCS TF）等為東亞與西太平洋主 要的氣候特徵，控制季節性與長期降雨與海水表面溫鹽度（SST & SSS）變化，並在氣候系統中 扮演熱與水氣傳輸的重要角色。歲差週期所調控的北半球夏季太陽入輻射量的改變對自上次冰期 以來的黑潮與亞洲季風長期變化已有相當多的研究，但傾角週期所影響的緯度梯度所改變的北太 平洋環流、與聖嬰–南方震盪（ENSO）/北赤道流分岔點（NEC Bifurcation）/南海與印度–太平洋 穿越流/西太平洋暖池（WPWP）的海洋回饋機制對黑潮、亞洲季風、南海穿越流的影響仍甚少有 所研究與評估。本計畫將基於上次冰期以來黑潮與亞洲季風變化觀測與古氣候重建成果，以創新 的手段整合研究海洋與陸地的亞洲季風古氣候紀錄，並配合全球與區域高解析度氣候模式模擬結 果與新代用指標的發展，針對重要的時間斷面交互比較，以鑑識控制黑潮、亞洲季風、南海穿越 流長期變化的動力機制，並提出新的理論觀點。本研究將應用多元與新的古氣候代用指標方法進 行海洋沉積物岩心分析，並與全球氣候模式（NCAR CCMs）及區域高解析度偶合氣候模式 （ROMS-WRF）模擬結果比較，以瞭解晚第四紀控制黑潮、亞洲季風、南海穿越流變化的主要機 制，並鑑識出重要的氣候控制作用並提出新的假說供後續研究檢驗，並從而能了解長期自然氣候 變化的規律及可能對人類社會的潛在衝擊。" "The Kuroshio, Asian Monsoon (AM) and South China Sea Throughflow (SCS TF) systems are dynamic and prevailing climate components in the East Asia and the western Pacific. Changes in the intensities and periodicities of the Kuroshio, AM, and SCS TF expressed in the East China Sea (ECS) and SCS result in varied precipitation on land and sea surface temperature and salinity (SST & SSS) in the oceans, thus playing an important role in regional and global heat and moisture transports. Numerous studies have shown that precession-controlled Northern Hemisphere summer insolation changes have affected Kuroshio and AM dynamics since the last glacial. However, few studies have concentrated on how other external or internal forcing such as obliquity variations and oceanic feedback mechanisms initiated by ENSO/North Equatorial Current (NEC) bifurcation/Throughflows (TF)/Western Pacific Warm Pool (WPWP) have brought impacts to the Kuroshio, AM and SCS TF and vice versa. This project, based on previous successful achievements of Kuroshio and AM paleoclimatic reconstructions, aims to better integrate previous paleoceanographic data, and conduct data-model analyses. The proposed works include applications of multiple, novel proxies to retrieve more reliable paleoclimatic signals from marine sediment cores from the ECS and SCS. The paleoclimatic data will be compared to simulation results from Global Climate Models (NCAR GCMs) and an advanced new high-resolution regional atmosphere-ocean coupled climate models (coupled ROMS-WRF) of the western Pacific, to evaluate the relative importance of different mechanisms that have controlled the Kuroshio, AM and SCS TF variability in the late Quaternary. This project will also focus on key time series and time slices since the last glacial, and based on which, to identify key processes and propose new hypothesis of controlling mechanism for the Kuroshio, AM and SCS TF variability. The expected achievements of these studies are to (1) reconstruct the paleoclimatic variability in the late Quaternary based on retrieved and new marine sediment cores by novel proxies of isotopic, organic geochemical, and trace metal methods, (2) compare data and model results to identify key mechanisms that have controlled the paleoclimatic history, (3) place the paleoclimatic records into a global perspective and test new hypotheses concerning the roles the external and internal forcings that have controlled the variability, which further our understanding on what lessons are to be learned from the paleoceanographic records about climate and ocean dynamics for the early 21st century, with potential impacts on humanity."