<b>細部計畫0:發酵海藻副產物於白蝦養殖之開發與應用</b>本計畫針對海藻萃取物生產商所產生的海藻副產物(藻渣)，以適合的益生菌進行發酵，進一步開發加值化技術，內容包括：開發蝦用機能性飼料添加物等產品，除了加值化海藻副產物，並提供養殖用機能性飼料添加物，提升養殖效益。本案將配合「農業循環再利用機能產品加值利用」群體計畫之執行，以具有調節水產動物生理之益生菌（枯草桿菌<em>Bacillus subtilis</em>）發酵海藻（小葉蕨藻<em>Caulerpa microphysa</em>）副產物 (藻渣)，評估其成分組成、添加於飼料後對白蝦成長、免疫能力與對白點症病毒（White Spot Syndrome Virus, WSSV）之抗病能力，建立目前市面上未見之共生質複方免疫調節劑之來源，期許能達到避免藥物及抗生素的使用，能夠提升水產生物本身免疫系統以對抗外來病原，亦可推動循環經濟，達到廢棄物資源化，提升藻類及蝦類養殖產業之效益，開創前瞻且精緻性的養殖產業。
<b>細部計畫0:串聯加值鯖魚副產物加工技術產業鏈</b>鯖魚為臺灣重要的經濟魚種，依據2018年漁業年報統計，臺灣捕獲之鯖魚，年產量約7.2萬公噸，鯖魚產地99 %集中在北臺灣 (新北市、基隆市及宜蘭市)，由於臺產鯖魚油脂含量較進口鯖魚為低，適口性不若進口鹽鯖產品滑順，因此有70 % (約5.1萬公噸) 的鯖魚被加工製成罐頭，加工過程中以副產物佔全魚體重30 %推估，每年臺產鯖魚副產物上看1.5萬公噸，雖然臺產鯖魚副產物中油脂含量偏低，卻有著豐富磷脂質型態的n-3多元不飽和脂肪酸、胺基酸及機能性胜肽等成分，由於缺乏各種機能性成分萃取技術的串聯整合，加上終端商品獲利空間不足，導致廠商仍抱持觀望心態，未積極承接技術，因此鯖魚副產物仍多低價利用養殖生餌或漁業餌料。本計畫擬串聯鯖魚副產物加值技術產業鏈，利用臺產鯖魚副產物串聯開發能依序提取機能性磷脂質及蛋白質胺基酸之技術，對應不同機能性成分發展具有地方特色之鯖酒及鯖醬油等終端產品，並期能將此串聯之核心技術，授權區漁會或具規模之食品飲料廠，以真正落實技術商品化與產業化。 <b>0:Improvement on manufacturing procedures of the functional chicken-liver hydrolysate and evaluation of its stability</b>According to a statistical report from Council of Agriculture, Executive Yuan, Taiwan, there are approximately 11,600 metric-ton chicken livers produced after slaughtering in Taiwan. Due to the odor/healthy concern and unwell utilization in food processing, there is an eager problem to handle those byproducts in poultry industry and government authority in agriculture. Recently, the functional foods for human and companion animals in Taiwan are valued of NT$ 140 and 5 billion, respectively. Based on the results in Year 106~109 projects, the chicken-liver hydrolysates demonstrate a hypolipidemic effects. Regarding the future utilization of this functional food ingredient, it is necessary to efficiently optimize the step of impurity removal in the commercial production of chicken-liver hydrolysates. Hence, the optimal step of impurity removal and the stability of chicken-liver hydrolysates will be determined in this proposal.
<b>0:Development of Multi-functional peptides by Hydrolysis Technology Using the Connective Tissues By-product of Swine</b>The immune function of pets is the same as humans. Allergic reaction is the most important recent health care for three years. Atopic dermatitis is the most common allergy issue in pets. In the other hand, metabolic syndrome including obesity, insulin resistance, diabetes and fatty liver also the important issue for health promotion. In recent years, small molecular oligo-peptides were used to prevent and treatment related disease that has been considerable development and attention. The by-products accounted for 60% from pig slaughter, including the blood, viscera and fur. The visceral mostly fresh state for sale, but the chest viscera includes the esophagus, diaphragm muscle, trachea, lungs, and tongue, skin and brain are less people eat. Collagen fibers, elastic fibers and vascular tissue are known as connective tissue. The byproducts of porcine lung and kidney can be digested with different enzyme or microbial hydrolysis to produced functional small molecular oligo-peptide. In this study, the functional peptides production from byproducts will be an ideal to process.
<b>0:The efficacy evaluation and product development of using shrimp and crab shell extracts to reduce joint degeneration</b>Chitin is a polymer formed by glucosamine and N-acetylglucosamine, and glucosamine can promote the production of proteoglycans and slow the occurrence of joint degeneration. Although chitin is widely used, it can only be dissolved in dilute the shortcomings in the acid solution cause him to have many limitations in application. It needs to be soluble in water to be easily absorbed by passive objects. Therefore, this project will use shrimp and crab shells and mushroom by-products for chitin extraction and modification, such as the degree of deacetylation, the molecular structure arrangement and the influence of molecular size on the dissolving properties, etc., explore the water solubility of the modified chitin, and evaluate its effectiveness in slowing joint degradation and inflammation in synovial cells.
<b>0:The reutilization of Taiwan sweet potato vines, watermelon vines, and pumpkin vines to develop intestinal health products for companion animals</b> The aim of this project will study the functional effects of agricultural byproducts such as sweet potato vine, watermelon vine, and pumpkin vine, and then evaluate the possibility of using them as the ingredients on intestinal function regulation for companion animals. After harvesting fruits, the remained vines were often little value to eat and regarded as a kind of waste. Those planting area of sweet potato, watermelon, and pumpkin at Miaoli county will be estimated to produce more than one hundred tones of vine byproducts. Therefore, to promote sustainable development of regional agriculture, the reutilization of byproducts will be a key point of tech innovation. Here, we will collect data with the quantity and the quality condition of regional target vines. To characterize samples by small scale extraction with the biotech method and functional screening with cell model assays to figure out the potential functional ingredients with effects on anti-oxidation and regulating intestinal function. Furthermore, develop manufacturing process to make vine byproducts becoming functional ingredients, and hope to reach stable production level for supplying. In the future perspective, the functional ingredient from vines will be used to manufacture pet’s intestinal healthy products that will have advantages on reducing agricultural byproducts, promoting pet’s health, and creating new economic value.
<b>0:Treating hog hair waste with novel Bacillus sp. and value-added application and product development using the degraded products</b><strong>Specific aims</strong>: According to the number of butchery inspections announced by the Animal and Plant Quarantine Bureau of the Council of Agriculture of the Executive Yuan, the number of slaughtered pigs nationwide was about 7.77 million in 2019, of which pig hair is one of the main wastes during the slaughter of pigs; however, an effective treatment strategy is still lacking. Most of them are dealt with incineration and burial. Apart from causing environmental pollution, they also consume a lot of money and energy costs. Therefore, it is an important issue to find a keratinase producing strain that can effectively digest and decompose pig hair.<strong>Structures or important work items</strong>: Based on the achievements of the 2019-2020 two-year project, the 2021-2024 four-year project will use previously selected <em>Bacillus</em> strains that have the best hydrolytic and digestive efficiency for pig hair, and co-ferment with pig hair or pig hair powder to the parameters of fermentation conditions allow the strain to exhibit the best keratinase activity, to obtain the largest amount of amino acids and functional peptide fragments after the degradation of pig hair effectively. In 2021 project, priority will be given to the commercial development of animal feed additives, and different batches of white broiler animals will be used to evaluate its growth promotion effect. At the same time, we will cooperate with the proposed technology transfer manufacturers to gradually increase the laboratory-scale fermentation capacity of pig hair to the scale of the factory, and optimize the production line to increase the proper treatment amount of pig hair waste year by year, which will not only increase the proper treatment amount of pig hair agricultural waste year by year, but also use pig hair degradation product conversion value-added products with economic value, in order to achieve the important task of participating in this period of agricultural resource cycle industrialization promotion and value-added application outline plan.<strong>Expected outcomes and benefits</strong>: We believe that through the efficient hydrolysis of pig hair waste with Bacillus strains, the current environmental pollution and energy consumption caused by incineration or landfill treatment can be prevented, and also the nutritional value of pig hair after treatment will be increased. The potential application of fermented hydrolysates obtained from pig hair treated with Bacillus strains as animal diets was evaluated and could be used to increase the growth performance of animals such as body weight gain and feed conversion rate.
<b>0:Development and application of fermented seaweed byproducts in white shrimp culture</b>The aim of this project is to apply fermentation of by-products, algal remains from marine algal-extracts industries, with suitable probiotics in developing value-added technology, which includes the following: Development of additives for functional shrimp feed and the likes, providing functional feed additives and increasing benefits of aquaculture, aside from adding value to the by-products. Our project will cooperate with the execution of the group project “Re-utilization through Circular Agriculture and Functional Products Value-Adding”, fermenting the by-products (algal remains) of marine algae (<em>Caulerpa microphysa</em>) with probiotics (<em>Bacillus subtilis</em>) that can regulate physiology of aquatic animals. The products from said fermentation will be evaluated on their compositions and effects, when added to feed, on growth, immunity, and resistance of white shrimps to White Spot Syndrome Virus, WSSV. The purpose is to develop a source of synbiotics for immunity regulation yet to be seen on current market, in the hope of preventing usage of drugs and antibiotics, while enhancing immunity in aquatic animals to resist foreign pathogens. Additionally, our project can promote circular economy, recycle wastes, increase the benefits of algae and shrimp aquaculture, and develop an aquaculture industry with visions and intricacies.
<b>0:Development of local sweet sorghum high-value silage production</b>After Taiwan's accession to the WTO, in the face of price competition of import dairy products and meat products, it is necessary to reduce the production cost of herbivores to enhance the competitiveness of the industry. In regard to the production cost of herbivores such as cattle and goats, the feed cost is the greatest expenditure item, accounting for 40-75% of the total production cost, of which the cost of forage is about 35-50%. However, tropical grass species are the main pasture in Taiwan, which are growing vigorously and have highly yield per unit area in summer, but growing slowly and the production sharply reducing because of the low temperature in winter, resulting in domestic forage’s unbalance supply and demand of different season and the quality is unstable. Therefore, Taiwan’s dairy farmers often use import hay to feed animals, and the price of import hay is generally 1.2 to 2 times that of domestic hay, so that the production cost of dairy farming has remained high. In recent years, as the price of import hay rising continuingly, the demand for domestic forage increased relatively. If the domestic forage can be amply supplied and the quality of domestic forage is improved, the production costs of the farmers will greatly reduce and the competitiveness of the industry can be improved. In recent decades, the self-sufficiency rate of pasture in Taiwan has been less than 56%, about 250,000 metric tons of hay, worth about 1 billion Taiwan dollars of hay must be imported from abroad every year. For this reason, how to make up the gap of about 44% of the hay, to use the domestic agricultural by- product recycling and development as forage, to achieve stability in quality and supply, thus to reduce production costs is the top priority of this proposal. The number of domestic cattle is 150,346, the number of goat in the sheep is 141,533 and the number of deer in the head is 18,198. The yield is 209,000 metric tons of fresh grass by 2,854 hectare of Pangola grass, 284,000 metric tons of fresh grass by 2,093 hectare of Pennisetum, and 369,000 metric tons of fresh grass by 7,959 hectare of other pasture. Total yield of fresh grass is 493,000 metric tons of fresh grass, and about 123,000 metric tons of hay. All the pasture is used to feed herbivore in Taiwan. The requirement of hay in Taiwan is about 905,000 metric tons per year, but the rate of self- sufficiency of domestic pasture is about 54%. The shortage (46%) is supplemented by imported hay and domestic agriculture by-product. Therefore, it is still needed to import 250,000 metric tons of legume and gramineae pasture, and the cost is US$ 30 million dollars (NT$ 10 billion dollars). It is expected to though this plan which use domestic agriculture by-product (such as sweet sorghum residue or grains distiller') to develop the forage product of agriculture by-product cycle and reusing. It could improve the rate of self-sufficiency for domestic herbivore, reduce the cost of feeding animal, and improve the competitiveness of related products. If the product of sweet sorghum silage is successfully produced, the sweet sorghum residue could be used about 10,000 metric tons, and there is NT$ 20 million dollars in domestic herbivore. The requirement could meet the need of domestic beef cattle industry. Furthermore, it could effectively reduce 20-30% of feeding cost to replace the import forage.
<b>0:Studies on tandem processing technologies for the value-adding of mackerel byproducts</b>Mackerel is an important economic fish species in Taiwan. According to the statistics of the 2018 annual fishery report, the annual output of mackerel caught in Taiwan is about 72,000 metric tons. The origin of mackerel catch is 99% concentrated in northern Taiwan (Taipei, Keelung and Yilan City). Owing to the fat content of Taiwan's mackerel is lower than the imported; the palatability is not as accepted as that imported salt mackerel products. Therefore, 70% (about 51,000 metric tons) of Taiwan's mackerel is processed into cans. It is estimated that fish processing waste accounts for 30% of the whole body weight. Each year, Taiwan's mackerel by-products look at 15,000 metric tons. Although the by-products of Taiwanese mackerel by-products are also low in oil, it has rich phospholipid n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, amino acids, functional peptides and etc. Due to the lack of tandem integration of various functional component extraction technologies and insufficient profit margins for commercial products, manufacturers still hold a wait-and-see attitude and do not receive and carry out the technology. Therefore the products are still used at low cost for aquaculture feeding or fishery bait. This plan intends to connect the mackerel by-product value-added technology industrial chain, and use the Taiwan’s mackerel by-products to develop technologies that can sequentially extract functional phospholipids and protein amino acids. Corresponding to the different functional components in mackerel byproduct developed the product with local characterized and high value adding, such as mackerel sake and mackerel soy sauce. This study will be able to connect the core technology in series for mackerel processing and authorize the district fishery association or a large-scale food and beverage factory to truly implement technology commercialization and industrialization.