|Title:||Aquaculture development：challenges for the 21st century||Authors:||I-Chiu Liao||Issue Date:||2000||Publisher:||Suisanzoshoku||Abstract:||
Aquaculture has a long history of more than 2, 500 years. It has been quietly practised without much attention until the 1960s. Since then, aquaculture has played an important role in food production. In the middle of 1980s, aquaculture production contributed only 14% of the world fishery production. At the end of 1990s, contribution from aquaculture has increased to 27.6%. Asian aquaculture has particularly shown its strength as its production now makes up 91% of the total world aquaculture production.
The world population has already reached six billion in 1999. At the present rate of increase, it is estimated that world population will reach nine billion in the 2050s. The increasing population is creating a serious concern about the food availability in the coming century. As capture fisheries production has apparently reached the maximum level in the 1990s, there is little chance that more aquatic foods can be obtained from the wild to satisfy the need for such large population. The whole world, therefore, expects aquaculture to provide more aquatic foods and other potential non-food products in the 21st century.
This paper discusses the challenges that aquaculture will meet in the 21st century, and provides recommendations which encompass both technique and non-technique aspects. The technique aspect includes the continuity of researches that are currently being conducted, the applications of biotechnology with corresponding precautionary measures, which are intended to produce better strains in terms of growth and disease resistance and to formulate superior feeds, and the innovation of aquaculture science which may find better ways to produce aquatic foods and utilize other aquatic organisms. The non-technique aspect includes the establishment and implementation of appropriate aquaculture laws and regulations, education and extension service, and strengthening international cooperation.
In comparison with the 20th century aquaculture, the 21st century aquaculture will take two major objectives: one is to continue producing affordable aquatic foods and the other is to supply high-value aquatic products for specialized markets. This is different from aquaculture in the past, which was intended only to satisfy the basic human need for food. Furthermore, unlike the present situation, the availability of resources for developing aquaculture in the 21st century will be critical. Therefore, different approaches will have to be adapted to pursue the objectives in the coming century. The use of ocean, which is an enormous resource for aquaculture development, is foreseeable. Aquaculture in the future will devote more in aspects of super-intensive recirculating culture system, automation system, deep ocean water utilization, sea cage aquaculture, as well as stock enhancement and sea ranching. To increase aquaculture production, the diversification of culture species is inevitable. Exotic species may be introduced after thorough studies. Aquaculture in the 21st century will pay more attention to environmental conservation to make the industry sustainable and everlasting.
|Appears in Collections:||海洋中心|
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