|Title:||Uncertainty Analysis for Image-Based Streamflow Measurement: The Influence of Ground Control Points||Authors:||Liu, Wen-Cheng
|Keywords:||uncertainty analysis;image velocimetry;LSPIV;streamflow measurement;ground control points (GCPs);Monte Carlo simulation||Issue Date:||1-Jan-2023||Publisher:||MDPI||Journal Volume:||15||Journal Issue:||1||Source:||WATER||Abstract:||
Large-scale particle image velocimetry (LSPIV) provides a cost-effective, rapid, and secure monitoring tool for streamflow measurements. However, surveys of ground control points (GCPs) might affect the camera parameters through the solution of collinearity equations and then impose uncertainty on the measurement results. In this paper, we explore and present an uncertainty analysis for image-based streamflow measurements with the main focus on the ground control points. The study area was Yufeng Creek, which is upstream of the Shimen Reservoir in Northern Taiwan. A monitoring system with dual cameras was set up on the platform of a gauge station to measure the surface velocity. To evaluate the feasibility and accuracy of image-based LSPIV, a comparison with the conventional measurement using a flow meter was conducted. Furthermore, the degree of uncertainty in LSPIV streamflow measurements influenced by the ground control points was quantified using Monte Carlo simulation (MCS). Different operations (with survey times from one to nine) and standard errors (30 mm, 10 mm, and 3 mm) during GCP measurements were considered. Overall, the impacts in the case of single GCP measurement are apparent, i.e., a shifted and wider confidence interval. This uncertainty can be alleviated if the coordinates of the control points are measured and averaged with three repetitions. In terms of the standard errors, the degrees of uncertainty (i.e., normalized confidence intervals) in the streamflow measurement were 20.7%, 12.8%, and 10.7%. Given a smaller SE in GCPs, less uncertain estimations of the river surface velocity and streamflow from LSPIV could be obtained.
|Appears in Collections:||海洋環境資訊系|
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